Optech Ilris 3D
 
ILRIS-3D is a compact, fully portable and highly integrated package with digital...
  Z + F Imager 5600i
 
The IMAGER 5006 is the first true “stand alone“ laser scanner, world-wide...
  Z Corporation Z Scanner 800
 
Applications: Reverse Engineering, Design, Manufacturing, Digital Mockups...
  Z scan & Z scan micro
 
ZScan is a 3d scanning instrument for point cloud acquisition through...

 
 

  • PLITVICE LAKES NATIONAL PARK - CORKOVA UVALA VIRGIN FOREST
    Within the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a most beautiful Dinaric jungle - the Corkova uvala virgin forest has been preserved. This virgin forest is located in section 1 of the forestry area of the same name, and expands...

  • PLANT SURVEY AND INTELILIGENT 3D MODELING
    Hellenic Petroleum SA holds a leading position in the Greek energy sector, as well as in the greater area of Southeast Europe. In Greece, the Group owns and operates three refineries, in Aspropyrgos...
  • TRAMAC 3D MODELING AND EFORMATIONa ANALYSIS OF AIRPLANE ROUNDABOUT LOOPS
    The airplane traffic at the Athens International Airport towards its 2 air-corridors (eastern and western) is regulated through 4 roundabout loops, 2 for each corridor. Due to the traffic load...

  • AS-BULIT SURVEY AND 3D MODELING OF HIGHWAYS IN GREECE
    Concession Self Financing Projects have been, during the last decade, a common practice for the construction of road transport networks. The basic concept is that a large private J/V undertakes the construction of a new highway section ...
  • RAILWAY TUNNEL SURVEY AND STRUCTURAL INSPECTION AGHIOS STEFANOS, ATHENS - GREECE
    The Greek Railway Organization main railroad, to its northern exit from Athens, passes through a tunnel complex, consisting of four tunnels (two for each railway line), near the small city of Aghios Stefanos...
  • 3D SURVEY AND STRUCTURAL DEFORMATION ANALYSIS OF AXIOS RIVER BRIDGE
    Close to the city of Thessaloniki, in Northern Greece, the Patras - Athens - Thessaloniki - Evzoni (P.A.TH.E.) Motorway, which is the main from South to North road transport axis of Greece, crosses the Axios...

  • OPEN PIT MINE APLICATIONS
    (Open pit mines in Croatia)
ARCHAEOLOGY
3D model of the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Remete near Zagreb

The first Pauline monastery in present-day Croatia was founded in the second half of the 13th century on the lower slopes of the Medvednica Mountains. During two seasons of archaeological excavations (2007 - 2008) on the southern plateau of the parish church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the ruins of two earlier churches were discovered. The massive foundations of both churches were heavily destroyed as a result of geotectonic disturbances. The older church (mid-13 century), was destroyed only a century after it was dedicated, due to the earlier mentioned geotectonic disturbances. However, the Paulines decided to build another church on the same ground. During the 15th century, the church sustained great damage, again as a result of geotectonic disturbances. Yet again, a new church (the one currently standing), with a monastery complex was built using the foundations of the two previous churches for support.
Since the foundations were greatly damaged and shifted towards the southern and eastern slopes of the plateau, reassembling for proper interpretation was needed. Laser scanning has been shown to be the only method possible for the precise reconstruction of the damaged foundation “puzzle” of the churches. Optech’s ILRIS-3D laser scanner and 3D data analysis methods helped reconstruct this middle-age puzzle with its outstanding characteristics and versatility. It helped in proving the geometrical facts of two historical churches and bringing the broken pieces of history back together. With an operating range of from 3 m to more than 1,500 m the ILRIS-3D offers a complete solution for archaeological research combining the closer smaller objects with its geographical wider area. The pictures below show the principle of joining moved parts.

These precise charts were extracted after processing the spatial data acquired with the 3D laser scanner. The data processing consisted off CAD technical drawings, 3D polygonal mesh modeling, and finally animation of the foundations. The animation showed the joining of the parts moving into their original positions and raising the original shapes of the two middle-age churches. All the data was geographically transformed into the national mapping grid allowing for future upgrading of the model after new excavations but also to overlap the data with existing topographical charts etc.  Among other final deliverables, the cross sections were also extracted and finalized in CAD environment


Figure 3. Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Remete – Geo-referenced 3D model represented as the RGB detailed point cloud.

Figure 4. Zoomed detail of the Geo-referenced 3D model represented as the RGB point cloud showing a high level of details with measurable functions.


 

Figure 5. a) Precise CAD drawing of both church foundations on their discovered location. b) CAD reconstruction of one of the churches based on the detailed information extracted from the 3D scanned data.

 

Figure 6. a) Final part of the animation with reconstructed foundation of the both discovered churches in respect to the existing church presented as a solid polygonal mesh 3D model generated from the 3D laser scanner data. b) Animation of joining the foundation parts for the older church (13ct).

 


Neanderthal Site of Vindija Cave near Varaždin


Vindija Cave is a stratified archaeological site in Croatia, home to several settlements associated with both Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH).

Vindija includes a total of 14 levels which date to between 25,000 and 45,000 years ago, spanning the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic periods. Although several of the levels are void of hominin remains, or have been disturbed by burrowing animals or ice wedging, there are four to five stratigraphically separated hominin levels at Vindija Cave associated with humans and Neanderthals.

The site was first excavated in the late 19th century, and more extensively excavated between 1974 and 1986 by Mirko Malez of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Art. In addition to extensive archaeological and faunal remains, remains from over 100 separate hominins have been found at Vindija Cave.

 

As a result of new 3D laser scanning technology we created a project related to this valuable archaeological site. The raw precise model of the exterior and interior of the cave has a multifunctional purpose. First of all there was an immediate need for preserving the cave from future devastation. From an architectural point of view some elements of construction had to be fitted into this natural site. For instance, a protective rail fence had to be designed. Since every rail had to be different, due to the natural stone diversity in longitudinal and cross sectional lines, a complete and precise 3D model from a 3D laser scan was the best way to go about it. After recording every cm of the cave as a detailed 3D model, other analysis was possible. Geologists, archaeologists, architects and speleologist were just some of the experts that gained interest in this detailed 3D model. The model can also serve as a 3D model basis in a 3D GIS data base with all the significant information applied to the 3D environment for every interesting part of the cave. Periodical 3D scanning and analysis of the same cross sections can show what is happening to the cave in geological and geographical sense. The animations and simulations can be perfectly visualized with help of the raw model etc. These are just some of the possible applications of this technology and project result.
The pictures show; raw 3D model as an RGB point cloud, processed polygonal mesh model of interior with the possibility of feature extractions such as measurements, angles, elevation error maps, DEM (Digital Elevation Model), topographical charts of the interior and exterior with contour lines, orthophoto of the main entrance. These are all the final deliverables and final products that can be produced after acquiring a complete 3D spatial data model with a 3D laser scanner.


 

  Figure 7. a) Vindija Cave entrence – Geo-referenced 3D model represented as the RGB detailed point cloud. b) Ortophoto overlapped with CAD polylines presenting an orthogonal view on the main cave entrance. c) Cave floor with cross sections. d) Complete cross section extracted from the complete polygonal mesh 3D model. e) Topographical chart of the cave interior and exterior with contour lines - all extracted from the 3D laser scanner data.  

Plitvice lakes national park – Krčingrad fort

The remains of the fort Krčingrad lie on a plateau between two lakes - Kozjak and Gradina in the Plitvice lakes national park. The burgh was built in the 14th century for the powerful Babonić family, but it was abandoned as the Ottoman attacks grew stronger in the middle of 16th century.

Excavations of Krčingrad began in 1911, but they lasted for only two seasons, and they were not continued until 2008. The fort was encircled with defensive walls, and had two defense-towers on the southern part and (probably) another one on the northern side. The bigger of two southern towers is especially interesting because of its rare, triangular ground-plan.

The partial excavations of this unique triangular fort tower took place in the summer of 2009. A detailed 3D model was created using the phase shift 3D laser scanner. The 3D model will be used for future geometrical study and CAD technical documentation. The solid 3D model will also be used for 3D animations and presentations. Because of the diverse and irregular architectural elements of these ancient historical elements and their remaining scattered parts, and the significance of the high level of details, a 3D laser scanner offers the best solution for such tasks

  Figure 8. Scanning the Krčingrad fort with Z+F Imager 5600i 3D phase shift laser scanner.  

Plitvice lakes national park - Corkova uvala virgin forest

Within the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a most beautiful Dinaric jungle - the Corkova uvala virgin forest has been preserved. This virgin forest is located in section 1 of the forestry area of the same name, and expands some 79.50 ha. That is primeval, untouched beech and fir forest (Abieti - Fagetum dinaricum Ht 38) that is growing extensively under the natural conditions of its living space, without man’s direct influence. A few trees have been cut, in order to make small boards (shingles) used to cover houses which do not disturb the virgin forest structure. In the Corkova uvala virgin forest, all the development phases of European beech and fir virgin forest can be found. Depending on the quality of living space, or rather on the amount of soil, fir and juniper have lived in karst areas for more that 700 years and beech for 300 years.

47% the Corkova uvala virgin forest is comprised of beech trees, while 40% are fir and 13% juniper. The tallest tree there is a juniper - over 50 meters high, followed by a fir of 47m and finally a beech of 35m. The largest fir tree has a diameter of 140 cm, juniper 130 and beech 102 cm. The average tree volume in the virgin forest is 565 m3/ha, while in an experimental area which is presently growing - old phase, the average tree volume makes 1 000 m3. The experimental area mentioned was chosen in 1957 for forestry research.

The previous paragraph mentions a lot of information related to spatial data analysis. The idea of having a digital model of the forest research area as a virtual measurable reality in a computer was something that interested the forest research experts. If we imagine extracting the volumes (radius) of trees, studying their mutual spatial position, angles of the branches, their vertical deviations, the volume of tree tops, we are looking at the technological achievement of 3D laser scanning technology. Manual and conventional methods of gathering that information were time consuming, and in the end the amount of data and their accuracy and precision was surpassingly poor in comparison to a 3D laser scanning model. Once again the model was presented in a precise National Mapping Grid which is very important due to the periodical study of virgin forest transition. The appropriate software solution for this interactive feature extraction was applied in order to achieve the forest expert’s needs. Once again the benefits of this technology showed the significance of 3D spatial data acquisition in the forestry science.

 

Figure 9.  a) Plitvice lakes national park,Corkova uvalavirgin forest – 3D model point cloud  data analysis. b) Field work in the Corkova uvala virgin forest with Optech ILRIS3D long range laser scanner.